Q. What is the difference between incineration and gasification of wastes?

Incineration is burning of waste in a furnace that often requires additional fuel for burning the waste. Whereas in gasification the waste is not burnt but gasified by converting all the carbonaceous material in the waste to a mixture of fuel gas called syngas.

Q. What are the various types of gasification technologies?

There are several types of gasification namely:

  • Air blown gasifier
  • Oxygen fed gasifier
  • Plasma gasifier
  • Multi stage plasma gasification or Plasma enhanced gasification

Q. What is syngas?

Syngas, or synthesis gas, consists primarily of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas and Hydrogen (H2) gas. Materials containing organic matter can be gasified to produce syngas. The carbon in the material combines with oxygen to produce Carbon Monoxide gas. Hydrogen in the material or from the addition of steam produces Hydrogen gas.

Q. Is the PEGS® suitable for use with Indian MSW that are of low heat value and high moisture content?

Yes. The PEGS® plant is designed to handle the low heat value and high moisture content Indian MSW and the wide variation in the heat value of the MSW. The specially designed algorithms and the control system ensures optimum performance of the plant that ensure 15 to 20% more power than the mass burn incineration systems in use.

Q. Is the PEGS® suitable for use with unsegregated Indian MSW?

With PEGS® there is no need to segregate the MSW and the MSW as received is processed within the plant to reduce the moisture from the waste heat to enhance the efficiency of the overall system.

Q. What products can I make using the syngas from PEPS® or PEGS®?

Syngas is the basic building block for many applications. It is used as a fuel in gas engine to produce power or as a raw material to produce number of chemical products. The following are a few of the useful products that can be made from syngas produced by EnerSol's PEPS ® and PEGS® processes :

  • Power (electricity)
  • Steam
  • Liquid fuels like mixed alcohol, ethanol, methanol, di Methyl Ether (DME), biodiesel
  • Hydrogen
  • Chemicals (methanol, oxochemicals,ammonia etc.)

Q. What EnerSol PEPS®or PEGS® system is right for me?

The PEPS® unit is focused on the destruction of wastes and the PEG® unit is optimized for the conversion of feed material to produce energy or other products. Alchemy Enersol team will be happy to assist you with the selection of an appropriate system for your application. Please contact us for further information or assistance.

Q. Doesn't plasma use a lot of energy?

The production of plasma to enhance high temperature processing requires some amount of energy input. However, EnerSol's PEPS® and PEGS® processes are designed to optimize the energy balance. For example, a PEGS® unit may be designed to use the minimum amount of plasma energy input to achieve the desired syngas quality. The result is a unit of optimal efficiency that is cost - effective for the application.

Q. What is the difference between pyrolysis, gasification and combustion?

Pyrolysis involves heating the feedstock in the absence of oxygen until volatiles are released, either as a “fast pyrolysis” or “slow pyrolysis”. Fast pyrolysis occurs at moderate temperatures (~500°C to 800°C) with a short residence time resulting in a primarily low pH, liquid product with some char and gaseous products formed. Slow pyrolysis occurs at low to moderate temperatures (320°Cto 500°C) with a longer residence time resulting in primarily char and gaseous products formed.

If a limited amount of oxygen is available during the processing of the feedstock, gasification occurs rather than pyrolysis. Gasification is a process using heat to convert carbonaceous feedstock into a gaseous mixture composed of primarily carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) typically at temperatures above 850°C. Two of the dominant reactions occurring during gasification are:

C + ½ O2→ CO (partial oxidation)
CO + H2O → H2+ CO2 (water gas shift reaction)

Q. How do PEPS®and PEGS®systems affect the environment?

All PEPS® and PEGS® units are built to an extremely high standard of environmental performance. The Fixed PEPS®, Mobile PEPS® and PEGS®units already constructed and demonstrated for the U.S. Army and other US customers. The PEGS® unit was tested for variety of feedstocks through third party certification for MSW, Industrial hazardous waste, biomass, biomedical waste, petcoke, industrial liquid waste and have performed exceptionally well and s attested by independent sampling. These units have met all permit requirements.

Q. Do the PEPS® and PEGS® produce any toxic emissions?

In the case of PEPS®and PEGS®, the destruction removal efficiency is >99.9999% and the stack emission levels measured are almost 10 times lower than US EPA standards for WTE plants. More importantly, due to the way the syngas is produced and processed the Furans and dioxins in the stack emissions are far below even measurable level. The slag produced by non-toxic and passed the Toxic Characteristics Leaching Property (TCLP) established by US EPA.

Q. How do you compare Catalytic alcohol synthesis system with other 2G ethanol process that are based on biological process?

 Ethanol and mixed alcohol from Catalytic Alcohol Synthesis System (CASS)Ethanol from Biological route
FeedstocksAll types of gaseous, solid or liquid carbonaceous materials (garbage, trash, tires), any type of biomass, mixed feed. With PEGS® as the front end it is FEED AGNOSTICSCultivated (food) crops
Cost of productionUnder $1 per gallon, profitable without subsidies due to reliance on abundant waste/fossil carbonsOver$1 per gallon,questionable profitability due to end of subsidy, cost of feedstock due to natural calamities and other issues
Quantity for productionUnlimited volumes using diverse feedstocksDetermined by agri-produced feedstock sources
Time for production24×7 continuous thermal technology processes4 to 7 day batch fermentation utilizing acidic enzymes, genetically-engineered biobugs or yeasts
Global applicationsyesspecific to agricultural regions
Commercial scalabilityyes –unlimitedlimited by feedstock availability
Process by-productsCo-generated electricity, distilled water, inert slags when solids are gasifiedCO2 fermentative emissions, wet lignin
Considerations when blending with dieselThe mixed alcohol as produced can be blended with diesel from 5% to 10% by volume. Eliminates black sooty exhaust. Can provide 20%+ greater fuel economy in non-adjusted diesel engines. No phase separation in cold conditions.Ethanol not utilized for blending with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Ethanol has lower RVP and BTU values and may phase separate in cold conditions.
Considerations in cold weather and for aviation fuelMixed alcohol without separation into individual alcohol can also be used as a premium blend. It stays blended into petroleum fuels without phase separation. As a neat fuel, higher mixed alcohols integrates about 5% gasoline volume for increased vapor pressure for cold starts. Blendable with Aviation fuelAs a neat fuel, ethanol has cold start problems with only 2.0 RVP of vapor pressure. Ethanol/gasoline blends work better with fuel injection systems versus carburetors.Not suitable for aviation fuel, due to phase separation in cold conditions