Incineration is burning of waste in a furnace that often requires additional fuel for burning the waste. Whereas in gasification the waste is not burnt but gasified by converting all the carbonaceous material in the waste to a mixture of fuel gas called syngas.
There are several types of gasification namely:
Syngas, or synthesis gas, consists primarily of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas and Hydrogen (H2) gas. Materials containing organic matter can be gasified to produce syngas. The carbon in the material combines with oxygen to produce Carbon Monoxide gas. Hydrogen in the material or from the addition of steam produces Hydrogen gas.
Yes. The PEGS® plant is designed to handle the low heat value and high moisture content Indian MSW and the wide variation in the heat value of the MSW. The specially designed algorithms and the control system ensures optimum performance of the plant that ensure 15 to 20% more power than the mass burn incineration systems in use.
With PEGS® there is no need to segregate the MSW and the MSW as received is processed within the plant to reduce the moisture from the waste heat to enhance the efficiency of the overall system.
Syngas is the basic building block for many applications. It is used as a fuel in gas engine to produce power or as a raw material to produce number of chemical products. The following are a few of the useful products that can be made from syngas produced by EnerSol's PEPS ® and PEGS® processes :
The PEPS® unit is focused on the destruction of wastes and the PEG® unit is optimized for the conversion of feed material to produce energy or other products. Alchemy Enersol team will be happy to assist you with the selection of an appropriate system for your application. Please contact us for further information or assistance.
The production of plasma to enhance high temperature processing requires some amount of energy input. However, EnerSol's PEPS® and PEGS® processes are designed to optimize the energy balance. For example, a PEGS® unit may be designed to use the minimum amount of plasma energy input to achieve the desired syngas quality. The result is a unit of optimal efficiency that is cost - effective for the application.
Pyrolysis involves heating the feedstock in the absence of oxygen until volatiles are released, either as a “fast pyrolysis” or “slow pyrolysis”. Fast pyrolysis occurs at moderate temperatures (~500°C to 800°C) with a short residence time resulting in a primarily low pH, liquid product with some char and gaseous products formed. Slow pyrolysis occurs at low to moderate temperatures (320°Cto 500°C) with a longer residence time resulting in primarily char and gaseous products formed.
If a limited amount of oxygen is available during the processing of the feedstock, gasification occurs rather than pyrolysis. Gasification is a process using heat to convert carbonaceous feedstock into a gaseous mixture composed of primarily carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) typically at temperatures above 850°C. Two of the dominant reactions occurring during gasification are:
C + ½ O2→ CO (partial oxidation)
CO + H2O → H2+ CO2 (water gas shift reaction)
All PEPS® and PEGS® units are built to an extremely high standard of environmental performance. The Fixed PEPS®, Mobile PEPS® and PEGS®units already constructed and demonstrated for the U.S. Army and other US customers. The PEGS® unit was tested for variety of feedstocks through third party certification for MSW, Industrial hazardous waste, biomass, biomedical waste, petcoke, industrial liquid waste and have performed exceptionally well and s attested by independent sampling. These units have met all permit requirements.
In the case of PEPS®and PEGS®, the destruction removal efficiency is >99.9999% and the stack emission levels measured are almost 10 times lower than US EPA standards for WTE plants. More importantly, due to the way the syngas is produced and processed the Furans and dioxins in the stack emissions are far below even measurable level. The slag produced by non-toxic and passed the Toxic Characteristics Leaching Property (TCLP) established by US EPA.
|Ethanol and mixed alcohol from Catalytic Alcohol Synthesis System (CASS)||Ethanol from Biological route|
|Feedstocks||All types of gaseous, solid or liquid carbonaceous materials (garbage, trash, tires), any type of biomass, mixed feed. With PEGS® as the front end it is FEED AGNOSTICS||Cultivated (food) crops|
|Cost of production||Under $1 per gallon, profitable without subsidies due to reliance on abundant waste/fossil carbons||Over$1 per gallon,questionable profitability due to end of subsidy, cost of feedstock due to natural calamities and other issues|
|Quantity for production||Unlimited volumes using diverse feedstocks||Determined by agri-produced feedstock sources|
|Time for production||24×7 continuous thermal technology processes||4 to 7 day batch fermentation utilizing acidic enzymes, genetically-engineered biobugs or yeasts|
|Global applications||yes||specific to agricultural regions|
|Commercial scalability||yes –unlimited||limited by feedstock availability|
|Process by-products||Co-generated electricity, distilled water, inert slags when solids are gasified||CO2 fermentative emissions, wet lignin|
|Considerations when blending with diesel||The mixed alcohol as produced can be blended with diesel from 5% to 10% by volume. Eliminates black sooty exhaust. Can provide 20%+ greater fuel economy in non-adjusted diesel engines. No phase separation in cold conditions.||Ethanol not utilized for blending with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Ethanol has lower RVP and BTU values and may phase separate in cold conditions.|
|Considerations in cold weather and for aviation fuel||Mixed alcohol without separation into individual alcohol can also be used as a premium blend. It stays blended into petroleum fuels without phase separation. As a neat fuel, higher mixed alcohols integrates about 5% gasoline volume for increased vapor pressure for cold starts. Blendable with Aviation fuel||As a neat fuel, ethanol has cold start problems with only 2.0 RVP of vapor pressure. Ethanol/gasoline blends work better with fuel injection systems versus carburetors.Not suitable for aviation fuel, due to phase separation in cold conditions|